I just found one of those interesting little local books from last century over on Google Books. This one, In the Shadow of Cairngorm by the Rev. William Forsyth, is about a small Protestant parish area in Scotland. There’s a chapter on weather lore, some of which is extremely specific to the area, and some more general.
“Dearg sa mhaduinn, fearg mu ‘n cadail.”
“A red morning, a wrathful evening.”
(Red sky in the morning, sailors take warning.)
“Breac-mhuiltein air an athar, latha math maireach.”
A mackerel sky, a good day tomorrow.
Gaoth roimh ‘n aiteamh,
‘s gaoth troimh tholl,
‘s gaoth nan long tha dol fo sheol:
Na tri gaothan a b’fhuaire dh’ fairich Fionn riamh.
“Wind before thaws,
And wind through a hole,
and wind of ship when hoisting sail:
The three coldest winds Fionn ever felt.”
They used to have a regular February thaw:
“Tha tre la Iuchair san Faoillteach,
‘s tre la Faoillteach san Iuchair.”
There are three Dog-days in February,
and three February days in the Dog-days.
After that, there’s a cold week of winds called Feudag (plover), then an even colder period called Gearran (gelding or horse), and then a week of April called Cailleach (old woman).
Then there’s the Three Days of the Ewes (good weather when lambs and kids are often born), and then the period called Sguabag (brushlet or little blast), and finally it’s Earrach (Spring).
Then it’s Ceitein (a pre-summer) which lasts three weeks. It ends May 12.
Here’s a Gaelic song by Runrig called “The Lambs in Springtime.”