Too bad Kirk and Uhura never got to play the poetry reference game….
I think all the poetry references are from the medieval poetry collection Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, as far as I can tell.
“White robes….” = the change from spring to summer, and no more tears. Also, “Surrender!” A nice way to demand surrender, but Captain Doolittle is showing that she’s wide awake and smart, and that they’re stupid old farts.
“You say you’ll love me forever….” I think is a sarcastic comment about how the Lightning II is sad that the high school girls mean to leave so soon, along with more sarcasm about being ooh, so confused. But mostly it’s saying that the schoolgirls are lying and bluffing. It’s a veiled threat.
“….pushes forward….” I think is a poem about a boat traveling over the deeps of love, but don’t quote me on it. I’m not certain about this one; it may even be newly composed for the occasion. Anyway, the girl is saying, “You can’t stop us.”
“Mountain cherries….” is about how the girls are all alone with the Lightning II, and nobody knows its identity or what’s going on. Another veiled threat in the terms of a love poem, but probably also a veiled warning that the girls don’t know what their opponent is about to do next.
These poems have been translated lots of different ways, since they are both brief and involve ambiguous wordplay. I find the Crunchyroll translator’s speedy job amazing.
Linking to Steven Den Beste’s post asking for such an analysis, since I’m not a commenter at his site.